Skip to main content

Glob Patterns

Rill supports ingesting data from a group of files using glob patterns in the URI of source files. This allows you to specify a pattern that matches multiple files, making it easier to ingest data from a group of related files. Let's explore how glob patterns work in Rill.

Ingesting Data with Glob Patterns

To ingest data using glob patterns, you include the pattern in the URI of the source files. Here's an example URI that will ingest all Parquet files in the my-bucket bucket that were created in January 2023: gs://my-bucket/y=2023/m=01/*.parquet

By default, Rill applies certain limits when using glob patterns to ingest data. The default limits are as follows:

  • Total size of all matching files: 10GB
  • Total file matches: 1000
  • Total files listed: 1 million

These limits can be configured in the .yaml file for the source. To modify the default limits, you can update the .yaml file with following fields:

  • glob.max_total_size: The maximum total size (in bytes) of all objects.
  • glob.max_objects_matched: The total file matches allowed.
  • glob.max_objects_listed: The total files listed to match against the glob pattern.

For example, to increase the limit on the total bytes downloaded to 100GB, you would add the following line to the source.yaml file:

glob.max_total_size: 1073741824000

Extract policies

Rill also supports extracting a subset of data matching a glob pattern. There are two types of extract policies:

  1. Row based limits: These limits restrict the amount of data that is ingested from each file.
  2. File based limits: These limits restrict the number of files that are ingested.

You can apply these policies individually or in combination to control the extraction process.

  • Here are the possible combination and their semantics.
    • If only rows is specified, no limit on the number of files is applied. For example, getting a 1 GB head extract will download as many files as necessary.
    • If only files is specified, each file upto limit will be fully ingested.
    • If both rows and files are specified, each file matching the files clause will be extracted according to the rows clause.

Each policy can be configured by specifying two parameters:

  1. size: The size of data in bytes (for rows) or number or files (for files) to fetch..
  2. strategy: The strategy to fetch data. Currently, only head (first n up to size) or tail (last n up to size) is supported.

Example 1: Extract first 100MB

To extract first 100MB data from a source use the following extract policy in the .yaml file for source:

strategy: head
size: 100MB

Example 2: Extract the first 100MB from each of the first 10 files

To extract the first 100MB of data from each of the first 10 files from a source use the following extract policy in the .yaml file for source:

strategy: head
size: 10
strategy: head
size: 100MB

Performance considerations of extract policies

When implementing extract policies, there are some performance considerations to keep in mind:

  1. It is important to note that the system may fetch more data than what is specified in order to implement row based limits.
    • For parquet files the data is typically fetched in row groups, and the entire row group is fetched.
    • For zipped files, the files are fully downloaded.
  2. Implementing a tail-based file strategy on a glob pattern matching a large number of files can take an unusually long time since the files are listed first and then the tail is computed in-memory.

Schema relaxation

When ingesting data that matches a glob pattern, Rill processes the data in batches and attempts to automatically adjust the schema if the files have different schemas. This allows for flexibility when dealing with files that might have variations in their structure. Here are the considerations involved in schema relaxation:

  1. Adding new columns: If the previously ingested data has fewer columns than the new files, Rill adds the new columns to the schema.
  2. Automatic datatype conversion: Rill automatically converts the datatype of a column to match the datatype in all files. This ensures consistency across the ingested data. The datatype is only relaxed to wider types like INTEGER to BIGINT or DOUBLE to VARCHAR and would never be a breaking change like VARCHAR to INTEGER or DOUBLE to INTEGER.
  3. Handling missing columns: If columns were present in the previously ingested data but are not present in the new data, Rill adds null values for those columns.

Schema relaxation is enabled by default. Set ingest.allow_schema_relaxation: false in your source's YAML file to disable it.

For example:

type: source
connector: "gcs"
uri: "gs://my-bucket/y=2023/m=*/d=0[1-7]/H=01/*.parquet"

ingest.allow_schema_relaxation: false